Russia has the market, the abundant natural resources and the human skills that foreign investors seek. Nevertheless, it still plunged into a post-reform crisis. Myopic policies based on short-term portfolio investments and massive imports have turned an otherwise promising transition to a market economy into a traumatic experience for the Russian people. The situation can be redressed through investments in the real economy. Russia's policy-makers need to spell out a viable and reassuring strategy to attract and optimize foreign investments. This book presents a new concept for foreign direct investment (FDI) and practical guidelines for implementing it in the five-year period 2000-5. The strategic approach to revitalize the economy through FDI can also be applied by authorities in other countries. Well-conceived FDI can benefit both the host country as well as the investor. This book therefore informs corporate executives about the advantages of becoming insiders in difficult markets through a local operation, be it a wholly-owned subsidiary or a joint venture. Special country chapters on the large emerging markets of China, India, Mexico and Russia provide potential investors with comparative information on investment patterns, future trends and legislation.
This book records the first success stories of a new form of financial intermediation, the hometown investment fund, that has become a national strategy in Japan, partly to meet the need to finance small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) after the devastating earthquake and tsunami in March 2011. The hometown investment fund has three main advantages. First, it contributes to financial market stability by lowering information asymmetry. Individual households and firms have direct access to information about the borrowing firms, mainly SMEs, that they lend to. Second, it is a stable source of risk capital. The fund is project driven. Firms and households decide to invest by getting to know the borrowers and their projects. In this way the fund distributes risk but not so that it renders risk intractable, which was the problem with the "originate and distribute" model. Third, it contributes to economic recovery by connecting firms and households with SMEs that are worthy of their support. It also creates employment opportunities, at the SMEs as well as for the pool of retirees from financial institutions who can help assess the projects. Introduction of the hometown investment fund has huge global implications. The world is seeking a method of financial intermediation that minimizes information asymmetry, distributes risk without making it opaque, and contributes to economic recovery. Funds similar to Japan's hometown investment fund can succeed in all three ways. After all, the majority of the world's businesses are SMEs. The first chapter explains the theory behind this method, and the following chapters relate success stories from Japan and other parts of Asia. This book should encourage policymakers, economists, lenders, and borrowers, especially in developing countries, to adopt this new form of financial intermediation, thus contributing to global economic stability.
Written primarily for business managers and government officials, this is a comprehensive and extremely timely handbook on how to successfully initiate and implement joint ventures and direct investments in China. The authors combine in one volume an appreciation of the nuances faced in the negotiation of U.S.-Chinese joint ventures, an examination of the investment environment in China and an assessment of its past traditions, present policies, and emerging problems. Case studies of a variety of actual joint ventures are especially valuable for readers involved in or planning to open negotiations in China. Several chapters assess the impacts of the events in Tianamen Square on foreign direct investment in the country. The book opens with two chapters which examine the reasons for China's open policy and the responses of foreign investors to the new policy. A group of chapters then explores the country's investment, cultural, and legal environments and their likely impacts on joint venture negotiations. Turning to an examination of Chinese markets and production capabilities, the authors assess consumption patterns, decision making, customer/supplier relations, local sourcing problems, transportation, the availability of skilled labor, management, and R&D. They go on to analyze the contributions of foreign direct investment, including the role of transnational corporations, and present a step-by-step guide to negotiating a joint venture in China and implementing the agreement reached. Finally, the authors look at prospects for development and modernization in China, particularly in terms of the trend towards recentralization following the Tianamen Square upheaval. In addition to business development managers, students in international business programs will find Direct Investment and Joint Ventures in China an indispensable resource.
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